Posted on Monday, 19 December 2005 at 04:45 AM. About movies.

Syriana primer

Lecture later, movie review today!

I saw Syriana the other night, and it turned out to be one of those rare, delightful serious political dramas that grapples with real-world issues without resorting to deus ex machina or a charming superhero to wrap everything up in a nice tidy bow at the end of the film. Besides being a beautifully shot and composed movie with a bevy of excellent performances from veteran Hollywood actors, Syriana is also a film that seems to evoke differing opinions from those who watch it. I'll leave a proper review up to the experts; A.O. Scott had a take on it that I mostly agree with, and of the blogging set, James Rocchi came up with the best way to summarize Stephen Gaghan's newest project:

Don’t think of Syriana's swirling mix of plot lines and people chasing an ever-dwindling supply of oil as a semi-sequel to Traffic. Think of it as a partial prequel to Mad Max.

Yeah.

But back to the point. As I was watching the movie, it seemed like more than a few of my fellow audience members were lost by the various allegiances and parties to the movie's plot. Then when I went home, I had a hard time explaining the plot to some of my friends. I admit I don't know a whole lot about Middle Eastern politics; my only credentials are that I read the newspapers and political glossies regularly but I think I might have been better prepared for Syriana's deluge of names and terms than some.

Anyway, I came up with a list of things that you should probably know before watching Syriana to get the most mileage out of one viewing of the movie. Because, frankly, it's a long damn movie, and if you don't enjoy it the first time you're probably not going to want to see it again. So here are some key terms to make sure you're familiar with, along with Wikipedia links for some general information. Judging from how much I learned by going and reading up on this stuff after my viewing, you can easily enjoy the film as long as you know...

Countries
...a thing or two about Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan and Kazakhstan, or at least where to find them on a map. It might also be helpful to know a bit about Kuwait, as the fictional monarchy of Syriana most resembles that country in its political structure, geography, natural resources and reliance on foreign workers.

Languages
...the difference between Arabic, Farsi and Urdu.

Terms
...about or have heard of due diligence and stinger missiles and know that (if memory serves me correctly) the thing "in Tehran in '86" was the Iran-Contra Affair.

Organizations
...the difference between the CIA and the FBI, the fact that business mergers must be approved by the Department of Justice, and what Hezbollah is.

It's just a bunch of stuff we all probably should have learned in high school civics and history, but didn't. Or at least, I didn't. So I don't mean to sound condescending; it's just that the political stuff isn't the only thing the film has to offer, and I would hope that the "casual political observer" could enjoy Syriana as well without getting hung up on the history behind the film. Maybe this helps, maybe not. Regardless, go watch it! It's a good flick.

67 comment(s) on 'Syriana primer'.

  1. 1 renting
    Posted on Sunday, 27 November 2011 at 07:48 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Our imagination is the only limit to what we can hope to have in the future. Help me! Looking for sites on: Get lioresal. I found only this - lioresal campared to soma.

  2. 2 Berry
    Posted on Wednesday, 14 March 2012 at 02:22 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Right on Dr. H. George Clooney is one of the main reasons I don't go to the mvoies any more. And this is from someone who saw at least 2 a week. I keep seeing George on talk shows etc, spouting his blather how his opinion is suppressed in some way...ARGHHH!!!I even cancelled my E.W. mag that you're showing after seeing his hated mug on the cover!

  3. 3 tdlfhmdbsfd
    Posted on Wednesday, 14 March 2012 at 05:34 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Ibs6iP echpdoekxgqn

  4. 4 lscbijy
    Posted on Thursday, 15 March 2012 at 03:48 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    nr5wv5 , [url=http://bwvgjnpqycrs.com/]bwvgjnpqycrs[/url], [link=http://hbytjddtyykl.com/]hbytjddtyykl[/link], http://gyhfbhpijjhq.com/

  5. 5 gfwxccqx
    Posted on Thursday, 15 March 2012 at 11:25 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    8QCTt3 hqlkzoqsealq

  6. 6 eqshgbljj
    Posted on Saturday, 17 March 2012 at 11:43 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    UNFmMe , [url=http://cdmkvjvjeqmr.com/]cdmkvjvjeqmr[/url], [link=http://wkymcwapqxxh.com/]wkymcwapqxxh[/link], http://fyfgdcengopu.com/

  7. 7 Christian Louboutin elisa patent pump
    Posted on Monday, 30 July 2012 at 01:48 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    i discovered your internet site upon reddit as well as believed i

  8. 8 RosanneArmstrong35
    Posted on Wednesday, 15 August 2012 at 12:59 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Buy term paper services and obtain the lots of of benefits you weren't able to think of. All custom writing services make everything possible so that you'll get an opportunity to get real assistance with academic papers nonstop.

  9. 9 buy seo
    Posted on Thursday, 16 August 2012 at 09:53 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Consequently that occurs that internet is filled by web blogs and you will be able to seek for a blog of any kind of theme. Those number of web blogs can make forum posting really workable. The forum posting service "marketingslinks.com" can determine blogs that will fit your type of materials. Therefore, you will have got a proper publicity and much higher PR!

  10. 10 loans
    Posted on Sunday, 19 August 2012 at 03:56 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    If you want to buy a house, you would have to get the business loans goodfinance-blog.com. Moreover, my father usually uses a student loan, which seems to be the most reliable.

  11. 11 online papers uk
    Posted on Monday, 20 August 2012 at 07:03 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    I commonly strive to get unique term papers! I select the essay example uk (primeessays.co.uk) providing service I can rely on! I am careful just about scams! Hence, I analyze all twice!

  12. 12 here
    Posted on Sunday, 26 August 2012 at 12:32 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    I do not try to discuss my writing techniques with my tutors. I show them quality essay papers and that is because I buy paper uk. But, I do not think that they have to care about the way I do that!

  13. 13 research paper writing services
    Posted on Wednesday, 29 August 2012 at 12:57 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Contact Essaysexperts company "essaysexperts.com" if you want to buy essay. This academic writing firm has been in the writing industry for quite a long time, so it will render you perfect writing help any time you needed.

  14. 14 Jack
    Posted on Wednesday, 19 March 2014 at 05:07 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    A very interesting article thanks for sharing it with all of us. Looking forward for more information. his topic has always fascinated me. Thank you for writing an article that has great content and is well written. Well I am inspired by your writing style.

  15. 15 Repliki zegarków
    Posted on Friday, 21 March 2014 at 09:03 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    The forum posting service "marketingslinks.com" can determine blogs that will fit your type of materials. Therefore, you will have got a proper publicity and much higher PR!

  16. 16 replica watches uk
    Posted on Monday, 16 June 2014 at 10:12 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    I also approaching , it is the best plan greedy described above from you . Ability of a sign of artistic You have my aggressive in practice.

  17. 17 essay writing service reddit
    Posted on Wednesday, 27 July 2016 at 12:45 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    It is just what I was looking for and quite thorough as well. Thanks for posting this, I saw a couple other similar posts but yours was the best so far. The ideas are strongly pointed out and clearly emphasized. 

  18. 18 Assignmenthelperuk.co.uk
    Posted on Tuesday, 25 October 2016 at 02:25 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    I enjoy a couple of from the Information which has been written, and particularly the comments posted I will definitely be visiting again.

  19. 19 Assignment Crux
    Posted on Thursday, 3 November 2016 at 06:19 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Really, i appreciate the effort you made to share the post. The topic here i found was really

    effective to the topic which i was researching for a long time.

  20. 20 Research Paper Service
    Posted on Wednesday, 16 November 2016 at 01:12 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Our creative ability is as far as possible to what we can plan to have later on. All custom written work administrations make everything conceivable so you'll get a chance to get genuine help with scholarly papers constant.

  21. 21 Best Research Paper Writing Service
    Posted on Wednesday, 23 November 2016 at 04:54 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Purchase research project benefits and get the bunches of advantages you couldn't consider. Our creative energy is as far as possible to what we can would like to have later on. Thus that happens that web is filled by web websites and you will have the capacity to look for a blog of any sort of topic.

  22. 22 Happy New Year 2017 Photos
    Posted on Wednesday, 7 December 2016 at 12:39 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Make your New Year a blast of fun! Celebrate the new beginning with fireworks and greet your friends and family on the eve of new year 2017.

  23. 23 Happy New Year 2017 Photos
    Posted on Wednesday, 7 December 2016 at 12:41 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Make your New Year a blast of fun! Celebrate the new beginning with fireworks and greet your friends and family on the eve of new year 2017.

  24. 24 Best Online Replica Jacket Store
    Posted on Friday, 9 December 2016 at 03:43 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Hello Admin! You have very astonishing post has shared. Generally I like reading these kinds of blog post through which my skill level can develop.

  25. 25 Heathrow Airport Transfer London
    Posted on Thursday, 15 December 2016 at 06:25 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    I don't attempt to talk about my written work procedures with my coaches. I indicate them quality article papers and that is on the grounds that I purchase paper uk. In the event that you need to purchase a house, you would need to get the business advances great back blog. In addition, my dad normally utilizes an understudy credit, which is by all accounts the most dependable.

  26. 26 Dhaval Patel
    Posted on Sunday, 18 December 2016 at 12:34 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Hello Admin! You have very astonishing post has shared. Generally I like reading these kinds of blog post through which my skill level can develop.

  27. 27 Christmas poems 2016
    Posted on Sunday, 18 December 2016 at 02:18 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Nice post kep on moving with more good post like this

  28. 28 BBL 2016 Live Stream FREE
    Posted on Sunday, 18 December 2016 at 02:19 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    good one yaar

  29. 29 Sonal Talwar
    Posted on Sunday, 18 December 2016 at 04:22 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Merry Christmas
    Merry Christmas Wishes
    Merry Christmas Greetings
    Merry Christmas Cards

  30. 30 Sonal
    Posted on Sunday, 18 December 2016 at 04:23 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    http://healthfundaa.com/merry-christmas-wishes-greetings/

  31. 31 Status de amor para
    Posted on Sunday, 18 December 2016 at 02:12 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Great to know about this here

  32. 32 Deviel Bcak
    Posted on Monday, 19 December 2016 at 01:06 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Happy new Year 2017 we have included New YearImages, New Year Greetings, New Year SMS.

  33. 33 dangal rating
    Posted on Tuesday, 20 December 2016 at 02:02 AM about 'Syriana primer'.


    dangal review
    dangal rating
    dangal Movie Review
    dangal Movie Rating

  34. 34 valentine's Day 2017 sms
    Posted on Tuesday, 20 December 2016 at 05:47 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Great site ... Visit here ...

  35. 35 New Year Wishes
    Posted on Wednesday, 21 December 2016 at 12:57 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    This is site is really nice.. Thanks for always sharing some tips with us.

  36. 36 Happy
    Posted on Wednesday, 21 December 2016 at 05:25 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Happy New year 2017 wishes

    happy new year 2017 wishes
    happy new year 2017 greetings
    happy new year 2017 messages in hindi
    happy new year 2017 wishes for Girlfriend
    happy new year 2017 wishes for lover
    happy new year 2017 dresses

  37. 37 dangal
    Posted on Thursday, 22 December 2016 at 03:14 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    i am visiting first time to your blog awesome post you have written, thank for sharing
    Dangal Box Office Collection
    [url="http://dangalboxofficecollections.co.in/"]Dangal Box Office Collection[/url]
    Dangal 1st Day Box Office Collection
    Dangal Total Collection
    Dangal Movie Collection

    i am visiting first time to your blog awesome post you have written, thank for sharing
    http://dangalboxofficecollections.co.in/ Dangal Box Office Collection

    i am visiting first time to your blog awesome post you have written, thank for sharing
    [url="http://dangalboxofficecollections.co.in/"]Dangal Box Office Collection[/url]
    [url="http://dangalboxofficecollections.co.in/"]Dangal 1st Day Box Office Collection[/url]
    [url="http://dangalboxofficecollections.co.in/"]Dangal Total Collection[/url]


    Dangal Box Office Collection

  38. 38 Angeila
    Posted on Friday, 23 December 2016 at 12:38 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Nice Article thanks for sharing this best blog with me

  39. 39 USA Matrimony shadi.com
    Posted on Friday, 23 December 2016 at 07:20 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Our inventive capacity is beyond what many would consider possible to what we can plan to have later on. All custom composed work organizations make everything possible so you'll get an opportunity to get honest to goodness help with insightful papers consistent. Our inventive vitality is quite far to what we can might want to have later on.

  40. 40 Best New Year Status
    Posted on Friday, 23 December 2016 at 08:25 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Informative post. Learn many things from the post. Thanks for the awesome share.

  41. 41 Happy New Year 2017 Wishes Images
    Posted on Sunday, 25 December 2016 at 04:38 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Happy New Year 2017 Advance Wishes
    Happy New Year Messages
    Happy New Year Images Free Download
    Latest Happy New Year WhatsApp Status
    Happy New Year Status In Hindi For WhatsApp
    Happy New Year Funny Jokes SMS
    Happy New Year Images 2017
    Happy New Year Images 2017 Wishes
    New Year Wallpapers Free Download
    Happy New Year Status, Happy New Year 2017 Messages , Happy New Year
    Pics, Happy New Year 2017 Pictures,Happy New Year Photos , Happy New Year Images For Facebook cover photos
    New Year Shayari Photo Free Download
    2017 HD Wallpaper Free Download
    New Year Ki Shubhakamnaye
    Advance Happy New Year 2017 Images Wishes
    New year Animaation Pics Wallpaper images Free Download
    hindi New Year jokes shayari SMS
    {*Awesome*} Happy New Year 2017 Hindi WhatsApp Status | Hindi Status For New Year 2017
    Happy New Year Animated Gif Wallpaper Images | New Year WhatsApp Video Greeting Card Wallpaper [Free Download]
    Happy New Year Wishes Images
    New Year 2017 Wishes
    Happy New Year Wishes in Hindi English Punjabi Marathi Gujrati Tamil Telgu
    Happy New Year Hindi Shayari, Messages,SMS

  42. 42 Assignment Bay Company
    Posted on Monday, 26 December 2016 at 06:25 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    School and University phonathon season is here. You might be amidst your battle, yet it's never past the point where it is possible to make a stride back and audit your advance.

  43. 43 the flash season 3 episode 10 stream
    Posted on Wednesday, 28 December 2016 at 03:20 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    yet it's never past the point where it is possible to make a stride back and audit your advance.

  44. 44 512x512 kits
    Posted on Sunday, 1 January 2017 at 08:39 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Dream League Soccer is an entertaining football simulator where you must lead your team to glory starting from the lower ranks of a fictional league that includes several teams from the European leagues.

    At the beginning of dream league soccer game you have to choose a name for your team, design your kit, and choose a captain. That done, you'll start out in a league with several modest teams such as Levante, Anderlecht, and Herenveen. From there you'll have to start winning matches in order to move up to a higher division.Thanks for this soccer article.

  45. 45 Personalized Rubber Bracelets
    Posted on Tuesday, 17 January 2017 at 12:38 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Design rubber bracelets, by engraving your favorite text, messages, fonts, design and artwork in it.

  46. 46 Valentine Day Wishes For GirlFriend
    Posted on Wednesday, 18 January 2017 at 12:17 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    I really impress your work and Learning a lot from your nice post would mean a lot for me.Your way to enlighten everything on this blog is actually pleasant, everyone manage to efficiently be familiar with it..??

  47. 47 Marriage Wishes For Sister
    Posted on Wednesday, 18 January 2017 at 12:27 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Asking questions are truly good thing if you are not understanding something fully, except this article presents pleasant understanding yet.

  48. 48 Cocky Quotes
    Posted on Wednesday, 18 January 2017 at 12:30 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    It's in reality a nice and useful piece of info. I am glad that you simply shared this helpful information with us. Please stay us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.

  49. 49 Christmas NewYear
    Posted on Saturday, 21 January 2017 at 12:54 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Valentine's Day Wishes
    Happy New Year Wishes

  50. 50 write my essay for me online
    Posted on Tuesday, 7 February 2017 at 05:22 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Drama is the non-specific term for the study of theater, or it is that classification of human expressions that arrangements with the theater. Since aesthetic expression is based upon passionate reactions, any life occasion which causes an enthusiastic reaction is named Dramatic despite the fact that it has nothing to do with theater.

  51. 51 Click Here
    Posted on Wednesday, 15 February 2017 at 09:43 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Design rubber bracelets, by engraving your favorite text, messages, fonts, design and artwork in it.

  52. 52 replique rolex
    Posted on Thursday, 16 February 2017 at 12:54 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    I like this very much

  53. 53 aadhar card
    Posted on Friday, 17 February 2017 at 06:57 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    very nice post

  54. 54 Birthday Wishes For Children
    Posted on Thursday, 23 February 2017 at 04:12 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Amazing data from you discovering, noble man. I've think about your own particular issues ahead of time of and you are likewise excessively wonderful. I love what you have here. You make it charming despite everything you can guarantee that is stays clever.This is positively an exemplary spectacular weblog value your spreading.

  55. 55 deepak
    Posted on Thursday, 23 February 2017 at 02:12 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Nice post.Very informative

  56. 56 Mobile Specification
    Posted on Saturday, 25 February 2017 at 01:07 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Visit Features of Mobile Specification

  57. 57 French Open 2017
    Posted on Saturday, 25 February 2017 at 03:20 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Very well written admin and I love to read more info, so keep updating we will happy to visit again and again to your blog... Best

    French Open 2017 Live streaming

  58. 58 Watch TV Show Online
    Posted on Thursday, 2 March 2017 at 03:04 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Again, thank you for considering me for this exciting opportunity. As you requested, I’m enclosing a list of professional references. Please feel free to call me if you need additional information, have any questions or would like to offer me the job! Thank you for your time, and I look forward to hearing from you.

  59. 59 Happy Taurus Birthday Wishes
    Posted on Thursday, 30 March 2017 at 04:53 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    I know the post is somewhat old yet you could take a stab at griping to OFCOM and after that getting assistance from them to compose a letter to VF to escape your agreement speedier and for nothing out of pocket. I've perused somewhere about a person who did this (it was the very same issue as you have, not having the capacity to utilize outsider switch) and he was effective.

  60. 60 Hottest Reporter
    Posted on Wednesday, 12 April 2017 at 01:44 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    What Would If I Tell You The Goosebumps News To Make The Stronger Page Load More Faster Then Other Pages Only The Technique Which Designed On The Other Level Of JavaScript pennant that anybody is aware of that looks as decent, is XML-driven, and really exploits parallel downloads, please let me know. I decided to pre-stack the cluster of 1200px pictures that show up in our Flash display to exploit parallel downloads, which our Flash flag of decision doesn't exploit. Aside from that however, in the chrome Backups, New tab we will sit tight here just for you.

  61. 61 IPL 2017 Points Table
    Posted on Sunday, 16 April 2017 at 06:51 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Ok, maybe those are too big...but there is something so gratifying about being able to see what's being produced and the sooner the better that first time while you awkwardly hold the yarn and try to believe the teacher that something magical is in fact happening. But my stash was fresh out of bulky yarn and honkin' needles, plus i knew that every trial they would face on the first day would arm them for the rest of their knitting lives. I mean, as long as our project wasn't something impossible like a sweater (or a full blown leg warmers on size US2's like my first project). We decided on the simple, gratifying and yet useful coffee cup cozy. One working with US 10.5mm needles and the other on US 8.0mm, not too bad. They could just knit it flat in stockinette or garter stitch if they didn't feel like purlin' back and have a cozy by the end of shoot day.

  62. 62 Dream League Soccer Kits
    Posted on Monday, 17 April 2017 at 01:46 AM about 'Syriana primer'.


    The information you have posted is exactly what I am looking for, wonderful and it is very much useful for people like me who are always looking to update themselves.

  63. 63 Most Amazing Restaurants
    Posted on Wednesday, 19 April 2017 at 01:27 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    If You Love To Eat Then You Will Definitely Read The Best Article Which Is Based On Some Different Restaurants You Want To Eat Here, Hey eateries. The eateries are judged by their feel, condition, rich course of action and the staff. How about we investigate some great eateries around the world.

  64. 64 French open 2017 Live Streaming
    Posted on Tuesday, 9 May 2017 at 01:32 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    French open 2017 Live Streaming

    http://www.frenchopen2017live.com/2016/07/french-open-2017-watch-predictions-for.html

    http://www.frenchopen2017live.com/

    http://www.frenchopen2017live.com/2016/07/french-open-2017-watch-predictions-for.html

    https://www.facebook.com/French-Open-2017-Live-Stream-541061989413719/

    French Open 2017 live streaming


    French Open 2017


    French Open 2017


    FIFA Live Streaming 2018

    FIFA 2018 TROLL

    Fifa 2018 Live Streaming - Live Updates

    French Open 2017 live streaming

  65. 65 soniya
    Posted on Thursday, 15 June 2017 at 01:06 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    Freelance Best Makeup & Hair Artist in Jaipur with huge experience and Specialization in Bridal and Wedding Makeup,Celebrity Makeup,Professional Makeup,Creative Makeup,Bollywood Makeup..
    Top 10 Makeup Artist In rajasthan
    Fiza Makeup and Hair Artist
    Wedding Makeup Artist in jaipur
     Bridal Makeup Artist in jaipur
     Professional Makeup Artist in jaipur
     Hair and Makeup Artist in jaipur
    Celebrity Makeup Artist in jaipur
    Creative Makeup Artist in jaipur
    Fiza Makeup Academy
    Bollywood Makeup Artist in jaipur
    Character Makeup Artist in jaipur
    Fiza Makeup Academy Rajasthan
    Top 10 Makeup Artist In Jaipur
    FreeLance Bridal Makeup Artist in
    jaipur

  66. 66 anchal jajoo
    Posted on Thursday, 15 June 2017 at 06:37 AM about 'Syriana primer'.

    A Pioneer Institute owned by industry professionals to impart vibrant, innovative and global education in the field of Hospitality to bridge the gap of 40 lakh job vacancies in the Hospitality sector. The Institute is contributing to the creation of knowledge and offer quality program to equip students with skills to face the global market concerted effort by dedicated faculties, providing best learning environment in fulfilling the ambition to become a Leading Institute in India.

    cha
    cha jaipur
    hotel management college in jaipur
    management of hospitality administration jaipur
    cha management jaipur
    Hotel management in jaipur
    Best hotel management college in jaipur
    College of Hospitality Administration, Jaipur
    Top 10 hotel management in jaipur
    Hotel management collegein Rajasthan
    College of Hospitality Administration
    premier hotel management institute in india

  67. 67 wimbledon live stream
    Posted on Monday, 19 June 2017 at 12:18 PM about 'Syriana primer'.

    I want you to thank for your time of this wonderful read!!! I definately enjoy every

    little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff of your blog a must

    read blog!!!!
    wimbledon live stream</a

Leave a Comment

This weblog is powered by Movable Type 2.63. Design by Matthew.